Neurological disorders are diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system, in other words, diseases of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular nodes and muscles. These disorders include epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia, cerebrovascular disease, including stroke, migraine and other types of headaches, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, neuroinfection, brain tumors, traumatic disorders of the nervous system such as brain injuries, and neurological disorders as a result of malnutrition.
Many bacterial (e.g. mycobacterial tuberculosis, meningococcus), viral (e.g. human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), enteroviruses, West Nile virus, Zika virus), fungal (e.g. cryptococcus, aspergillus) and parasitic (e.g. malaria, Chagas disease) infections can affect the nervous system. The infection itself or the immune response can lead to the development of neurological symptoms.
Neurosurgery is a section of surgery that deals with the surgical treatment of diseases of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system.
Modern neurosurgery specializes in the problems of non-surgical and surgical treatment of a wide range of disorders of the nervous system. Such diseases include tumors of the spinal cord and brain, trauma to peripheral nerves, as well as infection of the nervous system and abnormalities in its development. The most urgent problem today is the problem of vertebral hernias and osteochondrosis. Operations on the intervertebral discs are performed using endoscopic medical equipment that allows minimally invasive surgery by small punctures.